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當前位置:不銹鋼鑄件是如何構成的
[來源:www.voipblast.net] [作者:精密鑄造] [日期:18-11-07]

不銹鋼:含鉻量為12%以上的鐵基合金稱為不銹鋼,是不銹鋼和耐酸鋼的總稱。不銹鋼是指耐大氣、蒸汽和水等弱腐蝕介質的鋼,而耐酸鋼則是指耐酸、堿、鹽等化學浸蝕性介質腐蝕的鋼,不銹鋼與耐酸鋼在合金化程度上有較大差異,不銹鋼雖然具有不銹性,但并不一定耐酸;而耐酸鋼一般則均具有不銹性,在空氣中或化學腐蝕介質中能夠抵抗腐蝕的一種高合金鋼,不銹鋼是具有美觀的表面和耐腐蝕性能好,不必經過鍍色等表面處理,而發揮不銹鋼所固有的表面性能,使用于多方面的鋼鐵的一種,通常稱為不銹鋼。當前,不銹鋼鑄件在市場上也得到了廣泛應用,今天小編就為大家講解不銹鋼鑄件的四種分類:
Stainless steel: an iron base alloy containing more than 12 percent chromium is called stainless steel and is the general term for stainless steel and acid-resistant steel. Stainless steel is weak corrosion media such as air, steam and water resistance of steel, acid steel is refers to the chemical etching media such as acid, alkali, salt corrosion of steel, stainless steel with acid-resistant steel alloying extent have bigger difference, the stainless steel are not rust, but does not necessarily acid; And acid is commonly have stainless steel, resistant to chemical corrosion medium in the air or corrosion of a high alloy steel, stainless steel is a beautiful surface and corrosion resistant performance is good, need not after surface treatment, such as color of plating and the surface of the stainless steel inherent performance, used in a variety of steel a, often called stainless steel. Today, stainless steel castings are widely used in the market, and today we will cover four categories of stainless steel castings:

 
按化學成分分類不銹鋼有Cr不銹鋼和Cr、Ni不銹鋼兩大類。影響不銹鋼腐蝕性能的主要是含C量和析出的碳化物,所以耐腐蝕不銹鋼含C量越低越好,通常C≤0.08%,但是,耐熱鋼的高溫力學性能則決定于其組織中穩定的碳化物沉淀相,所以耐熱鋼的含C量都較高,一般含碳量在0.20%以上。
There are two kinds of stainless steel, Cr stainless steel, Cr and Ni stainless steel. Influence the corrosion performance of stainless steel are mainly C content and precipitation of carbides, so the corrosion resistance of stainless steel C content is lower, the better, usually C 0.08% or less, however, the high temperature of heat resistant steel mechanical performance is determined by its stable carbides precipitate phase in the organization, so the C content of heat resistant steel is higher, general carbon content above 0.20%.

 
按金相組織分類,不銹鋼分為鐵素體不銹鋼、馬氏體不銹鋼、奧氏體不銹鋼和雙相(在奧氏體基體中有鐵素體)不銹鋼:
Classified by microstructure, stainless steel, martensite stainless steel are divided into ferrite stainless steel, austenitic stainless steel and duplex () in austenite matrix ferrite stainless steel:

 

 
鐵素體不銹鋼鑄件
Ferrite stainless steel casting

 
1以鉻為主要合金元素,含Cr量一般在13%--30%之間。具有良好的耐氧化性介質腐蝕的能力和在高溫下耐空氣氧化能力,也可用作耐熱鋼。此種鋼的焊接性能較差。含鉻大于16%時,鑄態組織粗大,在400-525℃及550-700℃之間長期保溫,會出現“475℃”脆性相及σ相,使鋼變脆。475℃脆性與含Cr鐵素體的有序化現象有關。475℃脆性相及σ相脆性,可通過加熱到475℃以上然后快冷來改善。室溫脆性和焊后熱影響區的脆性也是鐵素體不銹鋼的基本問題之一,可采用真空精煉、加入微量元素(如硼、稀土及鈣等)或奧氏體形成元素(如Ni、 Mu、 N、 Cu等)的辦法加以改善。為了改善焊縫區與熱影響區的力學性能,通常還加入少量的Ti和Nb,以阻止熱影響區晶粒長大。常用的鐵素體鋼有ZGCr17和ZGCr28。該類鋼的沖擊韌性低,在很多場合被含高鎳的奧氏體不銹鋼所取代。含Ni量超過2%、含N量超過0.15%的鐵素體鋼有良好的沖擊性能。
With chromium as the main alloy element, the Cr quantity is generally between 13% and 30%. The ability to corrode the oxidizing medium and the ability to withstand air oxidation at high temperature can also be used as a heat-resistant steel. The welding performance of this steel is poor. Chromium is more than 16%, the as-cast organization bulky, in 400-525 ℃ and between 550-700 ℃ heat preservation for a long time, there will be a "475 ℃" brittle phase and the sigma phase, make steel brittle. 475 ℃ brittleness associated with ordering containing Cr ferritic phenomenon. 475 ℃ brittle phase and the sigma phase brittleness, can be heated to above 475 ℃ and then quickly to improve the cold. Room temperature brittleness of brittleness and after welding heat affected zone is also one of the basic problems of ferritic stainless steel, vacuum refining, can be used to trace elements (such as boron, rare earth and calcium) or austenitic formation elements (such as Ni, Mu, N, Cu, etc.) can be improved. In order to improve the mechanical properties of the weld area and the heat affected area, a small amount of Ti and Nb are usually added to prevent the heat affected area from growing up. Common ferritic steel has ZGCr17 and ZGCr28. The steel has a low impact and is replaced by high nickel austenitic stainless steel on many occasions. Ferritic steel, containing more than 2% of Ni and more than 0.15% of N, has a good impact.

 
馬氏體不銹鋼鑄件
Martensitic stainless steel castings

 
2馬氏體不銹鋼包括馬氏體型不銹鋼和沉淀硬化型不銹鋼。在工程應用中,是以力學性能為主要目的。雖然這類鋼在大氣腐蝕和較緩和的腐蝕介質中(如水及某些有機介質)具有良好的抗腐蝕的能力,但其腐蝕性能往往不作為檢驗項目。其化學成分的范圍是:Cr13%-17%,Ni2%-6%,C≤0.06%。金相組織中主要是低碳板條狀馬氏體,因此,具有優良的力學性能,強度指標是奧氏體不銹鋼的二倍以上,同時又具備良好的工藝性能,特別是焊接性能。因此在重要工程應用中占有極為重要的地位,是鑄造不銹鋼領域內的一個重要分支。
Martensitic stainless steel includes martensitic stainless steel and precipitated hardened stainless steel. In engineering applications, it is the main purpose of mechanical properties. Although this kind of steel in atmospheric corrosion and moderate corrosion medium (such as water and some organic medium) has good corrosion resistant ability, but its corrosion resistance is often not as a test project. The range of its chemical composition is: Cr13 % minus 17%, ni2% % minus 6%, C is less than 0.06%. Microstructure of low carbon plate strip martensite, therefore, it has excellent mechanical properties, strength index is more than 2 times of austenitic stainless steel, and also have good process performance, especially the welding performance. Therefore, it is an important branch in casting stainless steel.

 
奧氏體不銹鋼鑄件
Austenitic stainless steel castings

 
3奧氏體不銹鋼可分為四組,即Cr‐Ni系;Cr‐Ni‐Mo、 Cr‐Ni‐Cu或 Cr‐Ni‐Mo‐Cu系; Cr‐Mn‐N系和 Cr‐Ni‐Mn‐N系。Cr‐Ni系以著名的“18-8”為代表。Cr‐Ni‐Mo、 Cr‐Ni‐Cu、 Cr‐Ni‐Mo‐Cu系在Cr‐Ni系的基礎上加入2%-3%的鉬和銅(或二者同時加入),以提高抗硫酸的腐蝕性,但鉬是鐵素體形成元素,為了保證奧氏體化,加鉬后含Ni量要適當增加。Cr‐Mn‐N系是節省Ni的合金。當含Cr量大于15%時,單獨加入猛并不能獲得理想的奧氏體組織,必須加入0.2%-0.3%的氮,要得到單一的奧氏體必須加入0.35%以上的氮。由于含N量過高往往使鑄件產生氣孔、疏松等缺陷,而加入適量的N和少量的Ni,即可得到單一奧氏體,這就出現Cr‐Ni‐Mn‐N系。當然要得到奧氏體、鐵素體復相組織,就不須加入更多的N和Ni。
The austenitic stainless steel can be divided into four groups, the Cr ‐ Ni system. Cr ‐ Ni ‐ rate, Cr, Ni, or Cr. Cr ‐ Mn ‐ N series and Cr ‐ Ni ‐ Mn ‐ N. Cr ‐ Ni is represented by the famous "18-8". Cr ‐ Ni ‐ ‐ Mo, Cr Ni ‐ ‐ Ni, Cu, Cr ‐ Mo ‐ Cu system on the basis of Cr ‐ Ni is add 2% to 3% of molybdenum and copper join (or both), in order to improve the resistance to sulfate corrosion, but molybdenum ferrite formation elements, in order to guarantee the austenitizing, after add molybdenum content of Ni to appropriately increase. Cr ‐ Mn ‐ N is an alloy that saves Ni. When Cr content is more than 15%, are unable to obtain the ideal individual to join fierce austenitic organization, must add 0.2% to 0.3% of nitrogen, to get a single austenite must add more than 0.35% of nitrogen. Due to too high N content tend to make the casting defects such as blowholes, osteoporosis, and adding suitable amount of N and a small amount of Ni, can be single austenite, this is a Cr ‐ Ni ‐ Mn ‐ N system. Of course, you don't have to add more N and Ni to get the austenite and ferrite complex.

 
奧氏體—鐵素體復相不銹鋼鑄件
Austenitic body - ferritic stainless steel castings

 
4復相鋼的金相組織通常是含有5%-40%的鐵素體,以改善合金的焊接性,增加強度和提高抗應力腐蝕能力。例如Cr28%-Ni10%-C0.30%的高碳高鉻合金鋼,具有良好的抗硫酸腐蝕能力,可制造鑄件使用。在此基礎上發展的可控制鐵素體型鋼,有較高的強度,且在硫酸鹽中有良好的抗應力腐蝕能力,常用于石油工業的裝置。
The metallographic tissue of 4-phase steel is usually a 5%-40% ferrite to improve the weldability of the alloy, increase strength and enhance the resistance to stress corrosion. For example, Cr28 % -ni10% % - c0.30% high carbon high chromium alloy steel, has good anti-sulphate corrosion resistance, can make casting use. On the basis of the development of the controlled company ferrite steel, has high strength, and in the sulfate has the good ability to resist stress corrosion, commonly used in the oil industry.
 

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